Information on AYAHUASCA

Traditionally this beverage contains a combination of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine and the leaves of the Psychotria viridis (or alternatively the Diplopterys cabrerana). It has now been determined what the active components of these ingredients are, and some people have used plants from other parts of the world to make similar herbal potions.

The most important active component in ayahuasca as far as its visionary qualities are concerned is a substance called DMT (dimethyltryptamine). DMT has a powerful effect on consciousness that is difficult to describe in words. It's described by many as "spiritual", and is characterized by detailed, very bright and colourful visions. Indigenous people say that during their trance, which lasts approximately four hours, they enter the world of the spirits and communicate with them, while psychologists consider DMT to be one of the hallucinogens, or psychedelics: "substances which make the soul visible." CHEMISTRY AND PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

2D image of a harmine molecule
2D image of a dimethyltryptamine molecule
Ayahuasca is as complex as both chemistry and psychopharmacology can get. There's a uniquely vast array of botanical sources, and an infinite amount of preparation methods, usually involving psychoactive compounds that we're only beginning to comprehend scientifically, such as DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. The plant sources, the chemical processes and psychopharmacological actions described below are the ones that are generally considered to be the most remarkable ones.
The primary active compounds in B. caapi are the alkaloids harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine. They all belong to the β-carbolines group, which implies they are MAO-inhibitors. Harmine was first called 'telepathine'. Later scientists discovered they had already come across the same compound in P. harmala seeds, so 'telepathine' has become obsolete.

In the recipes of the Amazonian Indians, the liana itself is typically the main ingredient. Tests of different samples have found 20 to 40 mg, 144 to 158 mg, and even 401mg of β-carbolines per dose. Other alkaloids found in B. caapi are harmine-N-oxide, harmic acid methylester, harmalinic acid, harmic amide, acethylnorharmine and ketotetrahydronorharmine.

Harmine and other MAO-inhibitors prevent the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters by inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase enzymes. Apart from creating a path for otherwise orally inactive tryptamines, this renders certain substances harmful, most notably tyramine and tryptophan. These compounds are present in many kinds of food, like cheese and ripe fruit.
The primary active compound in P. viridis and D. cabrerana leaves is the indole ethylamine alkaloid n,n-dimethyltryptamine. Tests of different samples of Amazonian brews have found 25 to 36 mg of N,N-DMT per dose. It has a similar structure to serotonine and thus has affinity for several serotonergic 5-HT2 receptors. DMT is, like LSD, a partial-agonist on the receptor subtype 5-HT2A. When humans take DMT by itself orally, it is converted into inactive aldehydes by the endogenous enzyme monoamine oxidase.

The β-carbolines in the vine temporarily inhibit the production of this enzyme, allowing the DMT to reach the sensitive parts while still active. Inside the nervous system these are located near most of the serotoninergic terminal rich areas, including the neocortex (mainly the prefrontal, parietal, and somatosensory cortex) and the olfactory tubercle. Outside the nervous system 5-HT2A receptors are present in platelets (cell fragments, circulating in the blood, that are involved with clotting) and some muscles.

When inhaled through a vaporizer or bong, DMT gives pronounced effects without the intervention of an MAOI. The same goes for parenteral administration (injecting). Inhalation causes effects that last up to 30 minutes. Nasal insufflation, which is an important tradition of the Yanomamo tribe (see Wikipedia's Yopo page) of DMT causes an experience that lasts up to 60 minutes. Oral administration of DMT after a corresponding amount of MAOIs causes an experience of at least 3 hours. Intra-muscular and intravenous administration is effective without an MAOI.

Unlike P. viridis, D. cabrerana doesn't only contain DMT (between 0.17 and 1.75% of the leaves), but also N-methyltryptamine, 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenine and N-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline. The stems contain roughly the same set, excluding bufotenine. 5-MeO-DMT (5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine) is, like DMT, a psychedelic agent.
The status quo of DMT in prevailing science, despite the compound's visionary properties, is that DMT is a by-product of metabolism. In the light of an ayahuasca experience, this conclusion obviously calls for more scientific research. Since DMT is every bit as illegal as LSD and heroin, however, it is a tough process for interested parties to actually get to research DMT.

Dr. Rick Strassman, a professor at the University of New Mexico medical school, has managed to survive the bureaucratic jungle of the FDA, DEA and other authorities. In 1991 he commenced the first official psychedelic research program in the U.S. since 1970. In 2001, Strassman published his findings in 'DMT: The Spirit Molecule'.

DMT is being produced in the body all the time, and it is probably involved in the process of dreaming. DMT is also one of the few substances which can cross the blood-brain barrier. Hardly anything is known about how the extreme psychedelic activity of DMT really works.

DMT is used more and more these days by psychonauts, also in its smokable form. They use hard to obtain botanical extracts made from Acacia spp. or Mimosa hostilis, which are pure enough for one draw to contain enough DMT to be active through inhalation. If one smokes the unpurified leaf or other DMT carrying plant material, typically many lungfulls are required to achieve even the lightest kinds of effects. This leaves one exhausted before the effects start.

An example DMT extraction is shown below. Please note that DMT extraction, besides being a potentially dangerous chemistry procedure, is illegal in most countries.

Before you start, make sure you have all the materials needed:

- 100 gram of Mimosa Hostilis rootbark powder (MHRB)
- 250 ml naphtha
- 150 gram of lye (NaOH, caustic soda)
- 2 litre mason jar (a glass pickle jar will work also) or wide mouth HDPE jug
- 2 small glass (mason) jars (~0.5L)
- Guard
- Metal spoon
- Sheet of A4 paper
- Eye dropper/pipette
- Freezer

Dissolve 150 grams of lye in 1.5 litre of (tap) water in a large glass jar. It is advised to wear safety goggles and gloves, as lye is a very aggressive substance that can cause burns and blindness. Add the lye in two or three steps, and allow the liquid to cool down in between.
When the water with added lye has cooled down and is clear again, it is time to add the powdered mimosa bark. Add the powder slowly while stirring all the time. After adding the 100 grams of mimosa, leave the brew to stand for about an hour.
Add 100 ml of naphta and put the lid on the jar.
Gently turn the jar end over end for about 5 minutes. It is important not to shake or splash. After 5 minutes, put the jar down for some minutes and repeat the agitating process two more times.
After a short period two separate layers will be distinguishable. Separate the upper layer (naphta) using a pipette or eyedropper. It is important that none of the dark solution is collected.
Again, add 100 to 150 ml naphta to the large jar, and repeat the previous two steps two more times. Separate the upper layer in a new jar
Put the collection jars in the freezer.
After 24 hour the jars can be taken from the freezer. Carefully drain the naphta, making sure any floating crystals remain in the jar. Scoop out the white crystals from the side of the jar using a spoon, and leave them to dry on a folded piece of A4 paper.
After drying, crush any lumps up. The three pulls combined will result in 500-1000 mg pure DMT crystals.
This plant is also called reed canary grass and is one of the few DMT sources that you can find growing outside in the Netherlands. Little research has been done as to how exactly this plant can be used as the botanical DMT source for an ayahuasca analogue. Jim DeKorne, author of "Psychedelic Shamanism", is currently one of the few people who has published information on how P. arundinacea can be processed into an administrable substance. His idea of canary grass extraction is this:
Pulverize the grass clippings
Add water, "enough to make a pourable soup"
Acidify to pH 5 or so
(Optional) Simmer the acidified soup in a slow cooker overnight, not allowing the liquid to evaporate. ("It may take two or three such operations to get all of the alkaloids into solution")
Strain the plant matter through cheesecloth, then through a paper coffee filter
Add 10 to 15% of the mass of the solution in a "defatting solvent" such as methylene chloride, ether, chloroform, or naphtha.
Shake vigorously
The crap will go into the solvent, leaving the good stuff in the water.
Separate the water from the solvent.
Add a base to the aqueous solution in small increments until the pH gets to about 9 or 10. This converts the alkaloids into their free base.
Extract with 10% of the mass of the solution of an organic solvent four times, at one 24-hour and then three weekly intervals. The solvent layer will take on a darker tint, usually yellowish or reddish-brown. It will take almost a month to extract all of the alkaloids, and the solution should be shaken at least twice a day between extractions.
Evaporate the solvent off from the combined extract fractions. You now have the alkaloids.
In a later publication, "The Entheogen Review", DeKorne has more information on Phalaris extraction:
"The latest scoop is that you don't even have to use chemical extractions anymore - run several handfuls of grass through a wheatgrass juicer (sold in most health food stores) and you'll wind up with a glass or so of incredibly potent liquid. One teaspoon (with MAO inhibition, of course), is a standard dose with strong grass. Only two teaspoons proved very challenging to one of my correspondents - an OD! The juice can be dried and smoked in a bong - two tokes will usually do it.

We invite you to explore this site, read the interviews and prepare yourself well before you decide to try this powerful potion yourself. In case you are completely new to ayahuasca, we recommend you start by reading the introduction at-. ] ]

 Filed under: Science


bluesbaby5050: The Dark Side of Ayahuasca

Every day, hundreds of tourists arrive in Iquitos, Peru, seeking spiritual catharsis or just to trip their heads off. But increasingly often their trip becomes a nightmare, and some of them don't go home at all. Here's one such story: Kyle Nolan spent the summer of 2011 talking up a documentary called 'Stepping Into the Fire,' about the mind-expanding potential of ayahuasca. The film tells the story of a hard-driving derivatives trader and ex-Marine named Roberto Velez, who, in his words, turned his back on the "greed, power, and vice" of Wall Street after taking ayahuasca with a Peruvian shaman. The film is a slick promotion for the hallucinogenic tea that's widely embraced as a spirit cure, and for the Shimbre Shamanic Center, the ayahuasca lodge Velez built for his guru, a potbellied medicine man called Master Mancoluto. The film's message is that we Westerners have lost our way and that the ayahuasca brew (which is illegal in the United States because it contains the psychedelic compound DMT) can set us straight.

Last August, 18-year-old Nolan left his California home and boarded a plane to the Amazon for a 10-day, $1,200 stay at Shimbre in Peru's Amazon basin with Mancoluto – who is pitched in Shimbre's promotional materials as a man to help ayahuasca recruits "open their minds to deeper realities, develop their intuitive capabilities, and unlock untapped potential." But when Nolan – who was neither "flaky" nor "unreliable," says his father, Sean – didn't show up on his return flight home, his mother, Ingeborg Oswald, and his triplet sister, Marion, went to Peru to find him. Initially, Mancoluto, whose real name is José Pineda Vargas, told them Kyle had packed his bags and walked off without a word. The shaman even joined Oswald on television pleading for help in finding her son, but the police in Peru remained suspicious. Under pressure, Mancoluto admitted that Nolan had died after an ayahuasca session and that his body had been buried at the edge of the property. The official cause of death has not yet been determined.

Pilgrims like Nolan are flocking to the Amazon in search of ayahuasca, either to expand their spiritual horizons or to cure alcoholism, depression, and even cancer, but what many of them find is a nightmare. Still, the airport in Iquitos is buzzing with ayahuasca tourism. Vans from shamanic lodges pick up psychedelic pilgrims from around the world, while taxi drivers peddle access to Indian medicine men. "It reminds me of how they sell cocaine and marijuana in Amsterdam," one local said. "Here, it's shamans and ayahuasca."

Devotees talk about ayahuasca's cathartic and life-changing power, but there is a dark side to the tourism boom as well. With money rolling in and lodges popping up across Peru's sprawling Amazon, a new breed of shaman has emerged – and not all of them can be trusted with the powerful drug. Deaths like Nolan's are uncommon, but reports of molestation, rape, and negligence at the hands of predatory and inept shamans are not. In the past few years alone, a young German woman was allegedly raped and beaten by two men who had administered ayahuasca to her, two French citizens died while staying at ayahuasca lodges, and stories persist about unwanted sexual advances and people losing their marbles after being given overly potent doses. The age of ayahuasca as purely a medicinal, consciousness-raising pursuit seems like a quaint and distant past.A powerful psychedelic, DMT is a natural compound found throughout the plant kingdom and in mammals (including humans). Scientists don't know why it's so prevalent in the world, but studies suggest a role in natural dreaming. DMT doesn't work if swallowed alone, thanks to an enzyme in the gastrointestinal system that breaks it down. In a feat of prehistoric chemistry, Amazonian shamans fixed that by boiling two plants together – the ayahuasca vine and a DMT-containing shrub called chacruna – which shuts down the enzyme and allows the DMT to slip through the gut into the bloodstream.

Ayahuasca almost always induces vomiting before the hallucinogenic odyssey begins. It can be both horrifying and strangely blissful. One devotee described an ayahuasca trip as "psychotherapy on steroids." But for all the root's spiritual and therapeutic benefits, the ayahuasca boom is as wild and unmanageable as the jungle itself. One unofficial stat floating around Iquitos says the number of arriving pilgrims has grown fivefold in two years. Roger Rumrrill, a journalist who has written 25 books on the Amazon region, including several on shamanism, told me there's "a corresponding boom in charlatans – in fake shamans, who are targeting foreigners."

Few experts blame the concoction itself. Alan Shoemaker, who organizes an annual shamanism conference in Iquitos, says, "Ayahuasca is one of the sacred power plants and is completely nonaddictive, has been used for literally thousands of years for healing and divination purposes . . . and dying from overdose is virtually impossible."

Still, no one monitors the medicine men, their claims, or their credentials. No one is making sure they screen patients for, say, heart problems, although ayahuasca is known to boost pulse rates and blood pressure. (When French citizen Celine René Margarite Briset died from a heart attack after taking ayahuasca in the Amazonian city of Yurimaguas in 2011, it was reported she had a preexisting heart condition.) And though many prospective ayahuasca-takers – people likely to have been prescribed antidepressants – struggle with addiction and depression, few shamans know or care to ask about antidepressants like Prozac, which can be deadly when mixed with ayahuasca. Reports suggested that a clash of meds killed 39-year-old Frenchman Fabrice Champion, who died a few months after Briset in an Iquitos-based lodge called Espiritu de Anaconda (which had already experienced one death and has since changed its name to Anaconda Cosmica). No one has been charged in either case.

Nor is anyone monitoring the growing number of lodges offering to train foreigners to make and serve the potentially deadly brew. Rumrrill scoffs at the idea. "People study for years to become a shaman," he said. "You can't become one in a few weeks....It's a public health threat." Disciples of ayahuasca insist that a shaman's job is to control the movements of evil spirits in and out of the passengers, which in layman's terms means keeping people from losing their shit. An Argentine tourist at the same lodge where Briset died reportedly stabbed himself in the chest after drinking too much of the tea. I met a passenger whose face was covered in thick scabs I assumed were symptoms of an illness for which he was being treated. It turns out he'd scraped the skin off himself during an understatedly "rough night with the medicine." Because of ayahuasca's power to plow through the psyche, many lodges screen patients for bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. But one local tour guide told me about a seeker who failed to disclose that he was schizophrenic. He drank ayahuasca and was later arrested – naked and crazed – in a public plaza. Critics worry that apprentice programs are churning out ayahuasqueros who are incapable of handling such cases.

Common are stories of female tourists who, under ayahuasca's stupor, have faced sexual predators posing as healers. A nurse from Seattle says she booked a stay at a lodge run by a gringo shaman two hours outside Iquitos. When she slipped into ayahuasca's trademark "state of hyper-suggestibility," things got weird. "He placed his hands on my breast and groin and was talking a lot of shit to me," she recalls. "I couldn't talk. I was very weak." She said she couldn't confront the shaman. During the next session, he became verbally abusive. Fearing he might hurt her, she snuck off to the river, a tributary of the Amazon, late that night and swam away. She was lucky. In 2010, a 23-year-old German woman traveled to a tiny village called Barrio Florida for three nights of ayahuasca ceremonies. She ended up raped and brutally beaten by a "shaman" and his accomplice, who were both arrested. Last November, a Slovakian woman filed charges against a shaman, claiming she'd been raped during a ceremony at a lodge in Peru.

Even more troubling than ayahuasca is toé, a "witchcraft plant" that's a member of the nightshade family. Also called Brugmansia, or angel's trumpet, toé is known for its hallucinogenic powers. Skilled shamans use it in tiny amounts, but around Iquitos, people say irresponsible shamans dose foreigners with it to give them the Disneyland light shows they've come to expect. But there are downsides, to say the least. "Toé," warns one reputable Iquitos lodge, "is potentially very dangerous, and excessive use can cause permanent mental impairment. Deaths are not uncommon from miscalculated dosages." I heard horror stories. One ayahuasca tourist said, "Toé is a heavy, dark plant that's associated with witchcraft for a reason: You can't say no. Toé makes you go crazy. Some master shamans use it in small quantities, but it takes years to work with the plants. There's nothing good to come out of it."

Another visitor, an engineer from Washington, D.C., blames toé for his recent ayahuasca misadventure. He learned about ayahuasca on the internet and booked a multinight stay at one of the region's most popular lodges. By the second night, he felt something was amiss. "When the shaman passed me the cup that night, he said, 'We're going to put you back together.' I knew something was wrong. It was unbelievably strong." The man says it hit him like a wave. "All around me, people started moaning. Then the yells and screaming started. Soon, I realized that medics were coming in and out of the hut, attending to people, trying to calm them down." He angrily told me he was sure, based on hearing the bad trips of others who'd been given the substance, they had given him toé. "Ayahuasca," he says, "should come with a warning label."

Kyle's father, Sean, suspects toé may have played a part in his son's death, but he says he's still raising the money he needs to get a California coroner to release the autopsy report. Mancoluto couldn't be reached for comment, but his former benefactor, the securities trader Roberto Velez, now regrets his involvement with Mancoluto. "The man was evil and dangerous," he says, "and the whole world needs to know so that no one ever seeks him again." Some of Mancoluto's former patients believe his brews included toé and have taken to the internet, claiming his practices were haphazard. (He allegedly sat in a tower overseeing his patients telepathically as they staggered through the forest.) One blog reports seeing a client "wandering out of the jungle, onto the road, talking to people who weren't there, waving down cars, smoking imaginary cigarettes, and his eyes actually changed color, all of which indicated a high quantity of Brugmansia in Mancoluto's brew."

Shoemaker says that even though the majority of ayahuasca trips are positive and safe, things have gotten out of hand. "Misdosing with toé doesn't make you a witch," he says. "It makes you a criminal." Velez, whose inspirational ayahuasca story was the focus of the film that sparked Kyle Nolan's interest, is no longer an advocate. "It's of life-and-death importance," he warns, "that people don't get involved with shamans they don't know. I don't know if anyone should trust a stranger with their soul."

See also: Ayahuasca at Home: An American Experience

Related: Bucky McMahon's goes Down the Monkey Hole on a Ayahuasca Retreat

Read more:
Follow us: @mensjournal on Twitter | MensJournal on Facebook

Read more:

bluesbaby5050: Shown in the link below are some Images ......

Are some images some people had visions of while under the influence of the drug Ayahuasca:;_ylt=A0LEV03jwXRT2h8AbVxXNy....

bluesbaby5050: Ayahuasca Recipes

Ayahuasca Recipes:Top Articles from Everyday HealthIs Ayahuasca a Safe Psychedelic Drink?
Is it safe to drink ayahuasca brew? I wrote about ayahuasca in my book, From Chocolate to Morphine . It is a strong psychedelic drink derived from a woody vine (Banisteriopsis caapi) found in the Amazon forest, combined with the leaves of another plant (usually Psychotria viridis) . To make it, Indians pound lengths of the vine with stone, then cook them with the leaves in water for several hours,
Catfish and Sausage Jambalaya Recipe
Prep Time: 30 mins Cook Time: 20 mins Rest Time: 5 mins Total Time: 50 mins Ingredients 8 ounce(s) fish, catfish, thawed 1 tablespoon oil, cooking 1 medium onion(s), chopped 1/3 cup(s) pepper(s), green, bell, chopped 1 stalk(s) celery, chopped 3 clove(s) garlic, minced 4 ounce(s) sausage, Italian turkey, cut into 1/2-inch pieces 14 1/2 ounce(s) tomatoes, diced, undrained 1 can(s) broth, chicken, 14 ounces
Cranberry-Apple Cider Recipe
Prep Time: 10 mins Cook Time: 2 h 30 mins Total Time: 2 h 40 mins Ingredients 6 inch(es) cinnamon sticks, broken 1 teaspoon allspice, whole 4 cup(s) apple cider 4 cup(s) cranberry juice, low-calorie cranberries, fresh Recipe Tip: Cook 5 to 7 hours (low), or 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 (high). Preparation For spice bag, cut a 6- or 8-inch square from a double thickness of 100%-cotton cheesecloth. Place cinnamon and
Chef Tana's Pumpkin Bar Recipe
Ingredients: 2 cup(s) pumpkin, puree; 4 large egg(s), free-range; 1/2 cup(s) honey, raw; 2 tablespoon sugar substitute, xylitol, crystalline; 1/2 cup(s) oil, grapeseed; 1/4 cup(s) coconut milk, light; 11/15 cup(s) flour, rice; 11/15 cup(s) flour, all-purpose, gluten-free; 1/2 cup(s) almond meal; 2 teaspoon baking powder; 1 teaspoon baking soda; 2 teaspoon cinnamon, ground; 1/2 teaspoon ginger, ground; 1/4


You must be logged in to comment

Site Statistics