Barbara G. Walker
Pope Urban II tried to solve the problem by initiating crusades in the east, on the pretext of converting the Saracens' possessions in the "Holy Land" into Christian fiefs. In 1095 he instigated the People's Crusade as a combination of penitential pilgrimage and a war of conquest. It was advertised throughout Europe. All who participated were placed above restrictions of law, and promised forgiveness of sins and eternal bliss in heaven without any time spent in purgatory.